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Things to Do in Edinburgh

Rich with Celtic and medieval history, spectacular landscapes and coastal views, and a lively food and drink scene, Edinburgh is the jewel in the crown of Scotland. This UNESCO World Heritage–listed capital city is home to must-see attractions, including Edinburgh Castle, perched high on a hill overlooking the rooftops and streets below, and the famous Royal Mile, the main thoroughfare through the city's Old Town. Guided tours offer a deeper experience of—and in some cases, swift entrance to—top sights, while Edinburgh Dungeon tours and the annual Edinburgh Military Tattoo showcase the city’s dark history and military pomp. Using Edinburgh as a base, visitors can travel by road or rail to far-flung destinations such as Rosslyn Chapel and Hadrian's Wall, where the country’s Roman history comes to life. Marvel at the historic fortresses of Alnwick Castle and Stirling Castle—built to protect the country against numerous attacks down the centuries—or journey to the Isle of Islay for samples of peaty Scotch whisky at traditional distilleries such as Ardbeg, Bowmore, Kilchoman, and Laphroaig. Many Edinburgh visitors take the chance to cruise the tranquil waters of Loch Lomond or Loch Ness (monster sighting, anyone?), and outdoor enthusiasts head for the Highlands to experience historic Glencoe and scenic Cairngorms National Park.
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Edinburgh Castle
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Look up anywhere in Edinburgh's old town and you'll see Edinburgh Castle, seeming to grow out of the blackened cold volcano that forms its plinth. There's evidence of human habitation on this spot that dates back to 900 BC, and the Castle has been a royal stronghold since the Middle Ages. The place is steeped in history. There’s the Honours of Scotland – the oldest crown jewels in the United Kingdom, no less – and the Stone of Destiny, the coronation seat of ancient kings. There’s St Margaret’s Chapel, Edinburgh’s oldest building, and a cluster of military museums. You can take guided tours and see costumed performers bring the history of the Castle to life.
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Royal Mile
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Bookended by Edinburgh Castle and Holyrood Palace, the Royal Mile (it's actually slightly longer than a mile) is the grand center of Edinburgh's Old Town. The Royal Mile is dominated by granite, giving it a dark, Gothic feel, and lined with majestic buildings - banks, churches, courthouses. It was first modeled in the 12th century, when it was called Via Regis (the Way of the King). It’s not many thoroughfares that can claim to follow a path carved out by a glacier! Even though these days it's Tourist Central - it's jam-packed during the Edinburgh Festival, and year-round is heavy on the tartan'n' shortbread kitsch - it still somehow manages to maintain its feeling of splendor.
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Edinburgh Old Town
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The historic heart of Edinburgh and home to many of the city’s most popular tourist attractions, the atmospheric Old Town became a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1995. Watched over by the striking Edinburgh Castle, the Old Town is most famous for the central boulevard which runs between the hilltop castle and the Royal Palace of Holyrood, four sequential streets known as the Royal Mile. The main starting point for walking tours of the city, the Royal Mile is teeming with landmark buildings and iconic sights. The 12th century St Giles Cathedral, the National Museum of Scotland, the John Knox house and the underground streets of Mary King's Close are all popular visitor attractions, dotted between the throngs of souvenir shops, historic pubs and cafés. The final section of the Royal Mile, Canongate, is the most architecturally varied, with the 16th century Canongate Tollbooth and Canongate Kirk, the modern Scottish Parliament complex and the wacky Our Dynamic Earth building.

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Stirling Castle
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In a country of castles, Stirling Castle may just be the ultimate royal stronghold. In fact, it was once rumored to be the home of King Arthur and his knights. Like Edinburgh Castle, Stirling Castle dominates the surroundings, looming over it from a plug of volcanic rock. This impressive pile has seen it all, from a sacking by Robert the Bruce to the coronation of the infant Mary Queen of Scots to the premiere of the movie Braveheart in 1993. The castle has been involved in some famous battles (most notably the Battle of Bannockburn, after which Robert the Bruce took the castle from the English), but it was also a royal residence. The Stewart monarchs roamed the gardens, watching archery, playing bowls and mingling with peacocks and cranes. Mary Queen of Scots is said to have fell in love here. Kings hunted red deer and wild boar in the park.
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Forth Bridge
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The iconic Forth Bridge is a cantilever railway bridge that arches over the Firth of Forth in Scotland. Situated 14 kilometers from Edinburgh’s city center, this UNESCO World Heritage Site was designed by English engineers, John Fowler and Benjamin Baker. The bridge and its associated railway infrastructure is owned by Network Rail.

The distinctive red bridge, which links the villages of South Queensferry and North Queensferry, was opened by the Prince of Wales in March 1890, although was only classified as a UNESCO site on its 125th anniversary in 2015. The bridge spans a total length of almost 2500 meters and is an iconic symbol of Scotland’s engineering and architectural prowess and ingenuity. It also transports approximately 200 local and intercity trains across the Forth every single day.

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St. Giles Cathedral
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With its famous crown spire towering over the Royal Mile in Edinburgh’s Old Town and a history stretching over 1,000 years, St Giles Cathedral is one of the city’s most acclaimed religious buildings. Founded in the 1120s, the Cathedral has a long and illustrious history at the center of Scottish Catholic worship. From being ransacked and burned by English troops under King Richard II to hosting John Knox’s famous Reformation sermon in 1559 (a statue in Knox’s honor now stands in the nave), St Giles has seen it all.

Today, most of the cathedral’s Gothic structure dates back to the 19th century with highlights including the exquisite stained glass windows, some of the finest in Scotland and the legendary Thistle Chapel, once home to the Knights of the Order of the Thistle. As well as holding regular services, St Giles’ Cathedral is also renowned for its choral and organ recitals held on its grand Rieger organ, with many free musical events throughout the year.

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Palace of Holyroodhouse
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The Palace of Holyrood House, most often called Holyrood Palace, faces Edinburgh Castle along the length of the Royal Mile. Like its majestic companion, it's riddled with some of Scotland's most potent history.

The Abbey in the grounds was founded in 1128, and the palace itself is baroque. These days Holyrood Palace is the Scottish residence of Queen Elizabeth II, but it's probably best known for its association with another royal figure, Mary Queen of Scots. She was married here, lived here and saw her secretary murdered here.

As you'd expect, the apartments are lavishly decorated and the collection of tapestries and paintings top-notch. Drift around the gardens and make believe you're a monarch.

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Loch Lomond
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Britain's largest lake, Loch Lomond is part of the Trossachs, Scotland's first national park. An angler paradise with plenty trouts and salmons, Loch Lomond is also highly appreciated by hikers and watersports amateurs alike. Take a boat trip on the lake or hike nearby Ben Lomond (3,192ft / 973m) for super views of the Scottish Highlands. On your way to the bonnie banks of Loch Lomond, visit Stirling Castle, Scotland's most important medieval stronghold and a popular day trip from Edinburgh.
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Calton Hill
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Looming over the Royal Mile and Princes Street, Calton Hill is one of Edinburgh’s famous seven hills and part of the capital’s UNESCO World Heritage-listed Old Town. While locals know it as a picnic spot and recreation area, for visitors the main draw to Calton Hill are the spectacular views – look out over the city from the summit and you’ll enjoy a panoramic view spanning Arthur’s Seat, Edinburgh Castle and Holyrood Palace, all the way out to Leith and the Firth of Forth.

Calton Hill is also home to a number of prominent Edinburgh landmarks, including the Nelson Monument, the Dugald Stewart Monument, the City Observatory and the National Monument of Scotland, an unfinished tribute to Scottish servicemen inspired by the Parthenon in Athens. The hill is also the center of festivities for the annual Beltane Fire Festival in April, and hosts a number of summer festivals and events.

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More Things to Do in Edinburgh

Alnwick Castle

Alnwick Castle

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Alnwick Castle has been home to the aristocratic Percy family, who hold the ancient title of the Dukes of Northumberland. It is one of the largest inhabited castles in the UK and is now perhaps best known as the setting for Hogwarts Academy in the Harry Potter movies.

Starting life at the end of the 11th century as a Norman motte and bailey defence castle, Alnwick has expanded piecemeal and been consistently restored down the centuries; a visit today encompasses architectural styles from medieval through Gothic and on to Italianate neo-classicism. Alnwick has one of the finest private collections of decorative arts in the country as well as several museums or weaponry, war and archaeology – plus one dedicated to the successful TV series Downtown Abbey – housed in the castle’s towers, courtyards, keep and ornate state apartments, which were decorated by Robert Adam in the late 18th century and are crammed with paintings from the likes of Titian and Caneletto.

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Royal Yacht Britannia (HMY Britannia)

Royal Yacht Britannia (HMY Britannia)

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The Royal Yacht Britannia hit the seas in 1953, and took the British royal family around the world from then until 1997, when she was decommissioned. She's the 83rd royal yacht – the first belonged to Charles II in the 1600s.

Few yachts can boast such an illustrious career as the Royal Yacht Britannia, having sailed over a million miles and transported the British Royal Family on hundreds of official visits. Since retiring from service, the luxurious vessel has been permanently docked in Edinburgh’s historic Leith port, beside the Ocean Terminal shopping center, and serves as a museum of royal life at sea, as well as hosting elite events in its grand dining hall.

Exploring the regal yacht offers a unique insight into the life and travels of the Royal Family and you’ll be in good company if you choose to step on board – Sir Winston Churchill, Nelson Mandela and Rajiv Gandhi are among the many iconic figures that have been welcomed below deck.

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Grassmarket

Grassmarket

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Steeped in history, the Grassmarket is located directly below Edinburgh Castle and is just a minute’s walk from the famous Royal Mile and the National Museum of Scotland. A vibrant and historic area, here visitors can soak up the medieval atmosphere while marvelling at one of the most iconic views in the city, the mighty Edinburgh Castle. A stroll over the George IV Bridge leads to the Greyfriars Bobby statue and through some of Edinburgh’s oldest and most famous streets, including Candlemaker Row, Victoria Street, and West Port. The Grassmarket was traditionally a meeting point for market traders and cattle drovers, with temporary lodgings and taverns all around. It was also once a place of public execution, and a memorial near the site once occupied by the gibbet was created in 1937 to commemorate more than 100 people who died on the gallows in a period known as The Killing Time.

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Scottish Parliament

Scottish Parliament

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Located at the end of Edinburgh’s famous Royal Mile, the striking Scottish Parliament building stands its ground among some of the Old Town’s most dynamic architecture, with the grand Holyrood Palace, the elegant Queen’s Gallery and the fantastical Dynamic Earth all in close proximity.

The complex of innovative buildings opened in 2004, with the original design inspired by the surrounding countryside and Spanish architect Enric Miralles describing his vision as creating a structure that ‘appears to grow out of the land’. Most impressive is the unique façade of the Members' office, with its iconic shaped windows designed to evoke Raeburn’s famous painting of Reverend Robert Walker skating on ice, and the Canongate Wall, designed by Sora Smithson and inscribed with 26 quotations from prominent Scottish writers.

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Linlithgow Palace

Linlithgow Palace

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Linlithgow Palace is the classic romantic ruin, steeped in royal history and set beside a picturesque loch. It was begun in 1424 on the site of another palace that burnt down. Its halcyon period was during the reign of the Stuarts, who used it as a pleasure palace; it was particularly popular amongst the queens. Mary Queen of Scots and Elizabeth I lived there as babies.

The palace is roofless now (it was gutted by a fire in the eighteenth century), but plenty of the old grandeur remains. There's an impressive great hall and a magnificent three-tiered fountain in the courtyard - visit on Sundays in July and August to see it playing. It only flows with water occasionally to preserve the exquisite carvings of mermaids and musicians from erosion.

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John Knox House

John Knox House

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Reputedly the last residence of Scottish clergyman and author John Knox, the 15th-century John Knox House is one of Edinburgh’s oldest preserved buildings, now housing a museum devoted to its namesake. Despite its name, the house actually belonged to James Mossman, loyal goldsmith to Mary, Queen of Scots, who was eventually beheaded for counterfeiting once Edinburgh Castle surrendered in 1573.

The dramatic histories of Mossman, Mary Queen of Scots and Knox, famed for his significant role in the protestant reformation of the 16th-century, are the subject of the house’s permanent exhibition, which brings to life one of the most colorful eras of Scottish history. Today, the John Knox House Museum is part of the Scottish Storytelling Centre and is celebrated for its original architecture, including the 17th century Netherbow bell, now installed in the Storytelling Centre’s bell tower; the wood-paneled Oak Room and a series of early 17th-century ceiling paintings.

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Arthur's Seat

Arthur's Seat

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Along with Calton Hill and Castle Rock, Arthur's Seat forms part of the ridge of cold volcanoes that give such drama to the Edinburgh skyline. The mountain sits in Holyrood Park, 650 acres (260 hectares) of wild parkland just a short walk from the Royal Mile. So you can be shopping for Argyle socks one moment and roaming around lochs and moorland the next! From some angles, the mini-mountain resembles a sleeping lion. It’s perhaps seen at its best in the mellow light of sunset.

Arthur's Seat is no Everest, and if you want to climb it there are several easy ascents. If you're reasonably fit and keep striding you could make it in half an hour, but even if you're less fit or want to gaze at the scenery, an hour should take you to the top. Be careful on rainy days when the rocks are slippery.

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Rosslyn Chapel

Rosslyn Chapel

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Just outside the village of Roslin near Edinburgh, Rosslyn Chapel was made world famous by Dan Brown’s best-selling 2003 novel The Da Vinci Code, but it has been appreciated for its intricate stone carvings since long before then. Built in the mid-15th century by the Orkney earl William Sinclair, many of the designs are supposedly connected to Freemasonry and the Knights Templar, and as a result Rosslyn Chapel has been the subject of many myths and legends. There’s also plenty of speculation on what the Sinclair vault conceals, with theories that it contains everything from the Holy Grail to the body of Jesus himself.

From the outside, Rosslyn Chapel looks like a beautiful, mini cathedral. Scotland’s churches are normally very somber, but inside this chapel it’s incredibly ornate—every inch of stone has been sculpted into flowers, vines, and figures by the exceptionally skilled masons of the day.

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The Canongate

The Canongate

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The historic street of Canongate makes up the eastern section of the Royal Mile, leading up to the grounds of Holywood Palace and is home to many of the key attractions of Edinburgh’s Old Town. Taking its name from the canons of the neighboring Holyrood Abbey, modern-day Canongate is one of the most architectural diverse sections of the Old Town, with the strikingly modern Scottish Parliament building standing in contrast to the grand Holyrood Palace and the futuristic, tent-like structure housing the Our Dynamic Earth exhibition.

Canongate is also home to a number of significant 16th and 17th century buildings including the painstakingly preserved Canongate Tolbooth, dating back to 1591 and 17th century townhouses like Russel House and Queensbury house.

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Blackness Castle

Blackness Castle

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Often referred to as the “ship that never sailed,” Blackness Castle is a 15th century fortress sitting on the south shore of the Firth of Forth, not far from Edinburgh. With a long, narrow shape resembling a ship, the castle has been used as a residence, prison, artillery fortification and fortress over the centuries. Technological innovations were made in the 16th century and a cast iron pier with a gate and drawbridge was added in 1868. When the castle was restored between 1926 and 1935, most of the 19th century additions were removed and the medieval era features of the castle were restored.

Though most of the buildings are empty today, the castle is open to the public as a historic monument. An exhibition provides insight into the history of the castle, including information about the powerful Crichton family, for whom it was built.

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Melrose Abbey

Melrose Abbey

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National Museum of Scotland

National Museum of Scotland

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After undergoing an extensive makeover in 2011, the National Museum of Scotland now boasts 16 additional galleries and thousands of never-seen-before artifacts. Formerly two separate museums – the Royal Museum, built in 1861, and the modern Museum of Scotland - the National Museum was inaugurated in 2008 and is now one of the most popular attractions of Edinburgh’s Old Town.

The museum’s extensive collection features over 20,000 exhibits spread over 36 galleries, bringing to life the colorful history of Scotland and educating visitors on art, science, natural history and outer space, through a series of innovative, themed galleries and uniquely designed installations. Highlights include the Natural World Gallery, where the dramatic centerpiece is an enormous Tyrannosaurus Rex skeleton; the Victorian Grand Gallery, renowned for its spectacular architecture; and the stuffed body of Dolly the Sheep, famously the first successful mammal cloned from an adult cell.

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Scott Monument

Scott Monument

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An imposing gothic tower dedicated to celebrated Scottish poet Sir Walter Scott, the awe-inspiring Scott Monument dominates the skyline of Edinburgh’s New Town. Designed by George Meikle Kemp, who triumphed in a national architectural competition, the monument was constructed between 1840 and 1844, and towers 200 feet above the principal shopping district of Princes Street.

Beneath the central arch of the monument, a raised platform holds a statue of Sir Walter Scott, sitting with his faithful dog, Maida, and reading a book. Carved from a solid block of Carrara marble, the sculpture is the masterwork of Sir John Steell and became so iconic that a bronze replica has since been erected in Central Park, New York. The dramatic tower also doubles up as a popular observation point, with a 287-step spiral staircase leading to the tip of its spire.

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Forth Road Bridge

Forth Road Bridge

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Spanning the Firth of Forth between Edinburgh and the Kingdom of Fife, the Forth Road Bridge opened up in 1964 and runs parallel with the famous Forth railway bridge. As well as offering the quickest driving route from the capital to the Scottish Highlands, the Forth Road Bridge also has cycling and walking lanes that are open to the public.

The Forth Road Bridge is perhaps best known for its dramatic views of the neighboring Forth Bridge, the world's longest cantilever bridge and recently inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list. The striking red bridge is one of Scotland's most famous architectural icons and a remarkable feat of modern civil engineering, dating back over 125 years.

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